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Patent laws in practically all jurisdictions in the Middle East and North Africa clearly define what is considered to be an infringement act and from what date such acts may be considered infringing. As is the case in most countries outside the MENA region, there are many infringement exemptions that can be summarized in a brief statement: as long as the product and/or process is not being used for direct commercialization and profits, then any related acts are not considered an infringement.
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